CNC (computer numerical control) means the method of controlling the movement of the machine tool and its machining process with digital signals.
The CNC machining process technology in the wood means the process method for processing wood product parts with a CNC machine.
The Difference Between the CNC Machine and General Machine
There are many similarities in the method of CNC machine and general machine. The most difference is in the control mode.
For general machines, the selection of the machining steps, the machine movement sequence, the path of the cutter, and the relevant cutting amount are considered and determined by the operator based on personal experience and process rules for a certain process. Manually controlled.
For CNC machines, there’re various operation contents and machine actions in a prescribed digital form which is a control medium to realize the connection between the person and the machine.
The advantages of CNC machine
1. High degree of automation, specific processing content
The process of the CNC machine is automatically completed according to the input program. Under normal circumstances, the operator only observes and monitors the running status of the machine tool beside the machine. The specific process problem is the content considered in the early design of the numerical control process, and the selection is made and programmed into the machining program, which is flexibly controlled by the operator during processing.
2. Consistent quality
Due to the high positioning accuracy and repeated positioning accuracy of the CNC machine tool, it is easy to ensure the consistency of the part size and greatly reduce human error.
3. High productivity
Since the CNC machines can complete many machining processes in one clamping workpiece during machining, that can eliminate the intermediate process in the ordinary machine processing and shorten the processing preparation time.
4. Easy to produce a variety of complex shape processing
Since CNC machine tools generally do not require a lot of complicated process equipment, but through the programming, the process to process parts with complex shapes and high precision requirements, it is easy to make corresponding soft adjustments to the program when design changes, no need to re- Design processing fixtures.
Therefore, CNC machine tools can shorten the product development cycle and provide an effective method for new product development and rapid adaptation to market demand changes.
5. Easy to implement CAD/CAM
Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) has become the only way to modernize modern industrial technology. The most effective way to turn computer-aided design drawings and data into actual products is to use CAM technology to manufacture and manufacture. CNC machine tools and CNC machining technology are the basis of the CAM manufacturing system.
The Construction of CNC Router Machine
The machine body is the main body of the CNC machine tool. It consists of basic parts (such as bed and base) and moving parts (such as work table, saddle, and headstock). It not only has to realize various movements controlled by the numerical control device but also has to bear various forces including cutting forces.
Therefore, the machine body must ensure good geometric accuracy, sufficient rigidity, small thermal deformation, and low frictional resistance to effectively guarantee the machining accuracy of CNC machine tools.
The CNC system is the core of CNC machine tools, including hardware devices and CNC software. It consists of input/output devices, numerical control devices, servo units, drive units (or actuators), programmable controllers (PLCs), electrical control devices, and detection feedback devices.
CNC machine tool processing flow chart:
The Process of CNC Router Machine
The machining process of CNC machine tools is to program the geometric information and process information of the machined parts into a program, which is sent to the computer through the input part, processed and calculated by the computer, and sent to the drive circuit of each axis according to the components of each coordinate axis.
Conversion, amplification to drive the servo motor, drive the movement of each axis, and feedback control, so that each axis can accurately go to the required position. In this way, the movements are coordinated and the relative movement of the tool and the workpiece is achieved until the entire contour of the part is machined.
- Select and determine what to do with CNC machining;
- Process analysis of CNC machining of part drawings;
- CNC machining process design;
- Mathematical processing of graphics;
- Writing a machining program;
- Making control media according to the program list;
- Verification and revision of the program;
- The first trial processing and on-site problem handling.
Working flow chart of computer numerical control system in a CNC machine :